Naiara P. V. Sebbe, Filipe Fernandes, Vitor F. C. Sousa and Francisco J. G. Silva continue their comprehensive review on the facets of various process combinations, with 5 or more axis machining and hybrid manufacturing.
Standard manufacturing methods lost their traction to advanced ones for profitability. Hybrid manufacturing combines two or more distinct processes in a single piece of equipment. There are several types of hybrid manufacturing, although the most common combines laser additive manufacturing (AM) and 5-axis machining processes.
Machining with 5 or More Axis
5-axis machining, in addition to the X, Y, and Z axes, has two rotary axes, which greatly improves machining efficiency and accuracy. This is commonly used to machine blades, rotors, dies, molds and propellers, among others. It is hence the most important piece of equipment related to cutting—allowing the production of final components with more complex shapes impossible to obtain in a 3- or 4-axis m Figure 7 exemplifies a 5-axis tool with table tilt A-C and X, Y, and Z axis, showing the flexibility presented by these systems.
My et al. showed a mathematical model that analyses and compares the kinematic performance of six configurations of 5-axis machines. Xu et al. emphasised the need to avoid changing tool orientation in 5-axis machining, and proposed a smoothing method oriented to kinematic performance.
Using double-flank milling, Bizzarri et al. investigated fabricating screw rotors, since it was applied in 5-axis flank machining. Double-flank milling is feasible as a designed tool for symmetrical profiles. Bo et al. demonstrated a customised tool for machining narrow and curved regions with high precision, validated the algorithm using commercial software.
Prabha et al. integrated the Unigraphics NX6 CAD/CAM software into 5-axis CNC machines, to machine steam turbine blades, and made the measurement through 3D coordinates, observing great efficiency in relation to dimensional accuracy. Huang et al. emphasised the geometric errors in 5-axis machine despite the machine precision, and defined two models: “Rotary axis component displacement” and “Rotary axis line displacement” — analysing machining of five axes with discrepant results. 5-axis machining’s accuracy determines the processing success, manufacturing parts and products; possessing great advantage in flexibility and efficiency.
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