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Spark Plasma Diffusion Bonding Of TiAl/Ti2AlNb With Ti As Interlayer

Spark Plasma Diffusion Bonding Of TiAl/Ti2AlNb With Ti As Interlayer

Boxian Zhang from Dalian Jiaotong University, Chunhuan Chen and Jianchao He from Harbin Institute of Technology (and AVIC Manufacturing Technology Institute), and Jinbao Hou, Lu Chai and Yanlong Lv of AVIC Manufacturing Technology Institute discuss how titanium alloy helps spark plasma diffusion bonding.


TiAl is a replacement to Ni-base superalloys for its low density, high melting point, specific modulus, excellent creep and oxidation resistance. Ti2AlNb is a new high-temperature structural material developed after TiAl and Ti3Al, with high fracture toughness and creep resistance by adding Niobium (Nb). Ti2AlNb is extensively used in aerospace for its low-cycle-fatigue property and high creep resistance.

Laser and electron beam welding joining TiAl-based alloys suffer hot cracks and brittle intermetallic compounds from rapid cooling. Solid phase bonding will obtain high quality bonding. Methods include linear friction welding and conventional diffusion bonding which generate recrystallised grains at TiAl/Ti2AlNb’s bonding interface and block cracks crossing, improving welding quality.

Spark plasma diffusion bonding (SPDB) is a rapid-bonding method — introducing pulse current to solid phase diffusion bonding, promoting atomic diffusion and material plastic deformation. Heat is generated at the interface, different from the traditional hot-press diffusion bonding.

SPDB is applied to direct diffusion bonding Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb alloy, Ti-45Al-7Nb-0.3W (at.%) alloy, TZM30 alloy, WRE alloy, and HS-6-7-6-10-0.1LaB6 powder metallurgy high speed steel (PMHSS) and to the connection of SiC with Ta-5W as interlayer.

For diffusion bonding TiAl alloys, there are many interlayers types. Ti-Nb, Ti-Ni-Nb and TiZrCuNi were used to improve TiAl alloy bonding interface performance. Ti is compatible with Ti2AlNb and inhibits brittle compounds’ forming. Pure Ti was selected in the SPDB of TiAl and Ti2AlNb for high-quality welded joints.

Experimental Procedure

An as-extruded TiAl intermetallic compound with a composition of Ti-46Al-2Cr (at.%) was selected. Figure 1a shows the material’s microstructure at room-temperature. Its nearly fully lamellar structure consists of α phases and an alternate lamellar of γ phases.

Forged Ti2AlNb alloy with composition of Ti-22Al-27Nb (at.%) was also selected. Figure 1b shows the base metal after 800°C annealing. The resulting microstructure comprised massive O phases distributed on the β/B2 matrix.

The O phase is dark and gray, while B2 is bright white. Pure titanium TA1 with 0.1mm thickness was selected as interlayer, base metal to be bonded was machined into a 60mm rod with a 40mm diameter.


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