The aerospace industry is growing at an exponential rate. In fact, by 2028 it is predicted that upwards of 38,000 aircraft will be in service, a vast increase from the 26,000 being used today. As a result, digitalisation is increasing the reliability and efficiency of aerospace systems across the world.
In 2018, Kaspersky Lab detected and prevented activity by malicious objects on almost half of Industrial Control System (ICS) computers protected by the company’s products and defined as part of an organisation’s industrial infrastructure. The most affected countries were Vietnam, Algeria and Tunisia. These are some of the main findings of the Kaspersky Lab ICS CERT report on the industrial threat landscape in H2 2018.
Malicious cyber activities on ICS computers are considered an extremely dangerous threat as they could potentially cause material losses and production downtime in the operation of industrial facilities.
In 2018, the share of ICS computers that experienced such activities grew to 47.2 percent from 44 percent in 2017, indicating that the threat is rising
According to the new report, the top three countries in terms of the percentage of ICS computers on which Kaspersky Lab prevented malicious activity were the following: Vietnam (70.09 percent), Algeria (69.91 percent), and Tunisia (64.57 percent). The least impacted nations were Ireland (11.7 percent), Switzerland (14.9 percent), and Denmark (15.2 percent).
“Despite the common myth, the main source of threat to industrial computers is not a targeted attack, but mass-distributed malware that gets into industrial systems by accident, over the internet, through removable media such as USB-sticks, or e-mails. However, the fact that the attacks are successful because of a casual attitude to cybersecurity hygiene among employees means that they can potentially be prevented by staff training and awareness – this is much easier than trying to stop determined threat actors,” said Kirill Kruglov, security researcher at Kaspersky Lab ICS CERT.
Threats Against Industrial Computers In Singapore And Southeast Asia
When it comes to the regions worldwide with the highest proportion of ICS machines on which malicious activity was prevented by Kaspersky Lab, Southeast Asia came in second, with 57.8 percent of infected machines in H2 2018, following closely behind the most infected region, Africa at 60.5 percent.
In Singapore, the distribution of detected infection rate was 20.7 percent, and this figure was also the lowest across Southeast Asia. Within Asia Pacific, Singapore had the second lowest distribution of detected infections in H2 2018, edging behind Hong Kong at 15.3 percent.
“From 23 percent of ICS machines almost infected during the first six months of 2018, Singapore recorded a nearly three percent lower infection rate against their critical systems for last year’s final half. We commend the government and the enterprises’ significant strides in prioritising cybersecurity, and our latest figures undoubtedly prove the fruits of their labour. We are hopeful that Singapore will continue to be mindful that large-scale cyberattacks against critical systems have the potential to cripple manufacturing and disturb the nation’s operations, especially as the country continues to embark on its Smart Nation Initiative,” commented Yeo Siang Tiong, General Manager for Southeast Asia, Kaspersky Lab
Kaspersky Lab ICS CERT Recommends Implementing The Following Technical Measures:
- Regularly update operating systems, application software on systems that are part of the enterprise’s industrial network.
- Apply security fixes to PLC, RTU and network equipment used in ICS networks where applicable.
- Restrict network traffic on ports and protocols used on edge routers and inside the organisation’s OT networks.
- Audit access control for ICS components in the enterprise’s industrial network and at its boundaries.
- Deploy dedicated endpoint protection solutions on ICS servers, workstations and HMIs, such as Kaspersky Industrial CyberSecurity. This solution includes network traffic monitoring, analysis and detection to secure OT and industrial infrastructure from both random malware infections and dedicated industrial threats.
- Make sure security solutions are up-to-date and all the technologies recommended by the security solution vendor to protect from targeted attacks are enabled.
- Provide dedicated training and support for employees as well as partners and suppliers with access to your network.
- Use ICS network traffic monitoring, analysis and detection solutions for better protection from attacks potentially threatening technological process and main enterprise assets.
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MUNICH/SINGAPORE: Global figures show that Industry 4.0 has the potential to increase annual revenues by up to US$1.5 trillion in value to the global economy by 2022 and enable a seven fold increase in overall productivity. Meanwhile, in January 2018, the World Economic Forum identified Singapore as one of the countries best positioned to benefit from advancements in manufacturing and smart factories.
Speaking at the inaugural Industrial Transformation Asia-Pacific (ITAP) conference which is a Hannover Messe event taking place in Singapore this week, Dr. Andreas Hauser, Director, Digital Service Centre of Excellence, TÜV SÜD said: “With the right approach, the positive impact of Industry 4.0 could be tremendous, particularly in markets like Singapore, where manufacturing accounts for a fifth of GDP and 400,000 jobs. However, many companies we spoke to find it hard to formulate an Industry 4.0 roadmap which is customised according to their strengths and challenges. They are often overwhelmed by the multitude of technologies in the market and how they can be integrated seamlessly into their infrastructure.” In response to this need, the TÜV SÜD Digital Service Centre of Excellence in Singapore has launched a next-generation Industry 4.0 services portfolio to initiate, scale and sustain manufacturers’ transformation journeys effectively.
This transformation journey comprises three steps and starts with “Initiation”, in which TÜV SÜD assesses the readiness of production facilities to transform using best practice frameworks and tools. A key element is the Smart Industry Readiness Index (“Index”) which was launched by the Singapore Economic Development Board in partnership with TÜV SÜD last year. The “Index” provides companies with a structured and comprehensive approach towards understanding the current state of their manufacturing facilities and assesses their readiness for transformation in the context of Industry 4.0. To date, TÜV SÜD has completed more than 150 assessments with MNCs and SMEs across all industries.
After the initial assessment, TÜV SÜD partners with clients throughout their transformation, offering advice and guidance on how to fill specific gaps, Industry 4.0 roadmaps and business cases for technology implementation, as well as the relevant technical solutions to ensure safe and secure operations. One essential aspect for smart manufacturing is cyber security. Here, TÜV SÜD has set up a “Singapore Sealed Cloud” solution, powered by patented technology that ensures the highest levels of security and the uninterrupted operations of connected systems.
Unveiling the “Gateway to Industry 4.0”, a curated and immersive gallery powered by TÜV SÜD on the evolution and future of Industry 4.0 for ITAP attendees, he added: “As a global organisation furthering its roots in Singapore, we have always found the nation to be open to new ideas and experimentation, making it the perfect place to testbed solutions and industry frameworks. We look forward to partnering with our customers throughout their transformation journeys with our Industry 4.0 portfolio.” Through the Gateway, delegates can participate in a free self-assessment to evaluate their Industry 4.0 readiness and book an optional ten minute consultation with a TÜV SÜD expert to interpret the results.
TÜV SÜD’s Jackie Tan and Dr. Andreas Hauser will be speaking at the Future of Manufacturing Summit (17 October) and the Standards Forum (18 October) respectively. TÜV SÜD will also be showcasing the group’s comprehensive safety and security portfolio for Industry 4.0, additive manufacturing, cyber security and robotics at Singapore Expo hall 1 and 2, Booth F20. Live demos on Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) will be conducted throughout the three days.
For more information, please contact TÜV SÜD at www.tuv-sud.com/itap-2018.
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How can manufacturers protect themselves from falling victim to security attacks? By Farah Nazurah
The integrated nature of Industry 4.0-driven operations means that cyberattacks can have devastating effects, evident in the unprecedented “WannaCrypt” global cyberattack in 2017. Cyber security strategies should be secure and fully integrated into organisational and information technology. Picking the right cybersecurity provider is essential in ensuring data is protected.
Any manufacturer relying on condition monitoring or predictive maintenance, for example, will in the long term have to not only think about their technical implementation, but also about the secure design of the data traffic involved.
Steffen Zimmermann, security expert, German Mechanical Engineering Industry Association: “The paramount consideration here is risk assessment. Is there an intention to safeguard confidential data? Who has access to these data? How do data queries from abroad function—from China, for example?
Data Sharing: Increased Access To Data
Companies should consider which data should be shared and how to protect the systems, and which data that is proprietary or have privacy risks. Companies should leverage tools such as encryption for data which are at rest or in transit, to safeguard communications should they be intercepted or if the systems are compromised. It is important for manufacturing companies to perform risk assessments across their environment—including enterprise, DSN, industrial control systems, and connected products. Data evaluations should then be applied to update cyber risk strategies.
Secure Digital Identities
When working with automated and autonomous data, manufacturers should use secure digital identity (SDI). “The user should be able to trace and assign the decisions of the systems involved on the basis of secure digital identities,” advised Mr Zimmermann.
The requirements for these identities are extremely stringent: they have to be very difficult to copy, forgery-proof, and also be amenable to revocation or forwarding; and manufacturers should consider how they can implement SDI in actual practice. SDI is an unambiguous identity with additional security characteristics for dependably trustworthy authentication of an object (entity).
It prevents an incorrect identity from being simulated. Each networked device that communicates via open networks requires a secure identity. The principal goal is to identify and authenticate individual entities. There are six features defining an SDI: identification, integrity, forgery-resistance, offline identification, authentication and offline authentication.
Sensitive data are not limited to sensor and process information; it also includes a company’s intellectual property or even data related to privacy regulations. As more IoT devices are connected to networks, the risk of potential attack increases, along with risk from compromised devices. The first step companies should take is to discover all assets, especially industrial controllers.
Choosing the right cybersecurity provider who understands what your company needs is essential in protecting your data against cyberattacks. Transparency is important for companies with highly sensitive data therefore, ensure that third-party cybersecurity providers inform you where the information goes.
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Intelligent manufacturing takes advantage of advanced information and manufacturing technologies to achieve flexible, smart, and reconfigurable manufacturing processes. By Herbert Köbel, head of competence centre software, Leuze Electronic
As advances in technology enable increasingly connected machinery, what steps should you take to improve security? By Jonathan Chou
Worldwide: A massive global cyberattack affecting 200,000 victims including aerospace and automotive manufacturers will likely cause more chaos after the unprecedented attack on Friday, May 12.
Singapore: Technology company Siemens launched its first fully integrated digitalisation hub in the country.
There are new possibilities offered by big data, 3D printing, machine learning and augmented reality in the manufacturing industry. Leveraging on these into a new way of doing business is a key factor in Industry 4.0 to gain a competitive edge, and for companies to be more profitable and scalable. By Farah Nazurah
The global Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) market is expected to reach US$195 billion by 2022, growing from US$113 billion in 2015, at a compound annual growth rate of 7.89 percent between 2016 and 2022, according to a market research report by Markets and Markets. A key factor identified is the need to implement predictive maintenance techniques in industrial equipment to monitor their health and avoid unscheduled downtimes in the production cycle.
In the metrology segment, the view for Industry 4.0 in terms of part inspection is to increase quality and maximise throughput, whilst reducing costs right down the production line, making manufacturing processes faster and more accurate. Multi-sensor metrology alone is not enough to seize the maximum potential of the production line; integration of autonomous processes and hardware as well as complete connectivity is needed to fully embrace manufacturing of the future.
Four Industry 4.0 trends will be discussed in this article—from big data, predictive maintenance, augmented reality to cybersecurity. Industry players should be aware of these trends as they have already begun to affect many aspects of industrial automation going forward.
Industry 4.0 is the no longer the future of the industry, and the time is now for companies to implement intelligent manufacturing practices.
1. Big Data/Data Analytics
Big data describes the large volume of data, both structured and unstructured. Insights from big data can enable better decisions to be made—deepening customer engagement, optimising operations, preventing threats and fraud, and capitalising on new sources of revenue. The majority of data created between now and 2020 will not be produced by people, but by machines as they communicate with each other over data networks.
The insights gained from big data analytics and the IIoT to drive greater manufacturing intelligence and operations performance is considered essential by 68 percent of manufacturers, according to a recent survey by Honeywell. This highlights that manufacturers are increasingly aware of the importance in big data analytics and its potential in the industry.
Exponential Growth In Big Data
The global big data and business analytics market will grow to US$203 billion over the next few years, according to a report by International Data Corporation. The growth forecast for the global big data and business analytics market through 2020 is led by manufacturing and banking investments. The rate at which data is being generated is rapidly outpacing the ability to analyse it, according Dr Patrick Wolfe, a data scientist at the University College of London. The complex nature of the information created requires solutions capable of addressing data security, privacy and flexibility issues. Dr Wolfe added that it is key to turn these massive data streams from liability into strength.
Machine tool manufacturer Mazak has developed its own data collection and analysis system called SmartBox to connect machine tools securely and intelligently. The company uses this system at several of its own facilities worldwide. Most recently, the i-Smart Factory concept in their Singapore production facility is based on the company’s accumulated knowledge on factory management.
Tomohisa Yamazaki, president of Mazak, stated that rising personnel costs is a social problem not only in Japan but also in other countries as the labour force population declines. As such, one of the most crucial issues for the manufacturing industry is to keep increasing productivity by investing in advanced production technology.
Data Analytics To Reduce Machine Downtime
A survey of manufacturing executives in the US by Honeywell revealed 67 percent of respondents have plans to invest in data analytics. The executives viewed data analytics as a fundamental component of the IIoT, and as a solution to unplanned downtime and lost revenue.
The survey revealed companies are feeling pressure to continue working under threats of unscheduled downtime and equipment breakdowns, which was viewed as the most crucial factor in maximising revenue. Employing data analytics to ensure machines are kept running at optimum level could vastly reduce and even eliminate unplanned downtime.
2. Predictive Maintenance
Predictive maintenance foresees when equipment breakdowns might arise, and it prevents machine breakdowns by carrying out maintenance. When repairs and maintenance are planned, it could save manufacturing companies 12 percent in cost savings, whereas a loss as much as 30 percent could be incurred when unplanned repairs occur, according to research by the World Economic Forum and the consultancy Accenture.
With predictive maintenance, manufacturers can lessen maintenance and servicing costs, and boost reaction times within disruptive production processes.
The unchanging objective in metal cutting manufacturing is to further increase productivity, creating added value for the customer. Heller, a milling machines and systems manufacturer, has developed its own system to improve transparency of its current machine status, by evaluating data to allow purposeful diagnostics which yields higher productivity and reduces machine downtimes. The visualisation of specific information, including status displays of axes, spindles or other assemblies, enables users to determine wear and take preventive measures in order to avoid unscheduled downtimes.
Real-time Condition Monitoring
Machine and sensor data can be catalogued and displayed in real time using Industry 4.0 software, which provides support for condition monitoring. Data visualisation is not confined to the control station, and can be accessible on any platform everywhere—from tablets, smartphones, and bigger screens, both on the production floor and in the cloud.
When the software has determined an imminent maintenance task from the pre-set specifications, the information would be sent immediately to maintenance staff. After maintenance has been carried out, staff can note down tips to improve subsequent maintenance works.
3. Augmented Reality
Augmented reality (AR) is an enhancement of a real-time display using real images alongside computer generated information. AR is associated with Industry 4.0 practices relating to smart manufacturing, and has tremendous potential to influence manufacturing industries. With augmented reality, challenges which arise with conventional 3D measurement can be eliminated.
For example, Keyence’s XM Series handheld probe coordinate measuring machine allows for an operator to perform 3D measurements via an onscreen interactive visual guide and touch probe. Augmented-reality guidance images are created automatically, and the system overlays the measurement points along with their 3D elements.
Shared programmed work instructions and measurement results in consistent measurement regardless of the operator, environment or other circumstances.
Potential Usage Scenarios
AR has numerous uses, involving different types of operations that can be executed on the factory floor—manufacturing activities such as production, and support processes such as maintenance and training.
“Some companies are concerned or even hesitant to adopt industry 4.0 practices as they are not even at the Industry 3.0 stage. However, it is possible to jump straight from Industry 2.0 to 4.0. For example, to improve standard operating procedures among plant staff that are still using physical papers for instructions, they could instead make use of augmented reality to simplify and learn new procedures,” said Lim Yew Heng, partner and managing director, The Boston Consulting Group. Some potential usage scenarios of AR are as follows:
- Operations: any kind of operation which requires some step by step procedure can benefit from the adoption of AR—installation, assembly and machinery tool change.
- Maintenance and remote assistance: AR is efficient at reducing execution times, minimising human errors and sending the relevant performance analytics to maintenance staff.
- Safety management: AR allows risk and safety of operators and equipment to be managed.
- Design and visualisation: AR provides tools that improve design, prototyping and visualisation in the design phase.
- Training: for companies where training is a critical process involving many field technicians, AR-guided training can be effective at training staff, especially in the beginning where there is a learning curve.
- Quality control: AR support in quality control processes enables staff to determine if products meet manufacturing standards.
4. Cyber Security
The integrated nature of Industry 4.0-driven operations means that cyberattacks can have devastating effects, evident in the unprecedented “WannaCry” global cyberattack in May this year. Cyber security strategies should be secure and fully integrated into organisational and information technology. Picking the right cybersecurity provider is essential in ensuring data is protected.
“Some of our clients have come to us and said they do not think they will be able to put up their data on the cloud as they have very sensitive data. Within their operating database, there are certain data that are more sensitive, and there are those which contain less sensitive information,” said Mr Heng, partner and managing director, The Boston Consulting Group. “They could start out with putting less sensitive data on the cloud and understand how it works first, and understand how cybersecurity providers can help them. From there, they can move towards a more balanced approach.”
Data Sharing: Increased Access To Data
Companies should consider which data should be shared and how to protect the systems, and which data that is proprietary or have privacy risks. Companies should leverage tools such as encryption for data which are at rest or in transit, to safeguard communications should they be intercepted or if the systems are compromised.
It is important for manufacturing companies to perform risk assessments across their environment—including enterprise, DSN, industrial control systems, and connected products. Data evaluations should then be applied to update cyber risk strategies.
Sensitive data are not limited to sensor and process information; it also includes a company’s intellectual property or even data related to privacy regulations.
As more IoT devices are connected to networks, the risk of potential attack increases, along with risk from compromised devices. The first step companies should take is to discover all assets, especially industrial controllers. Picking the right cybersecurity provider who understands what your company needs is essential in protecting your data against cyberattacks. Transparency is important for companies with highly sensitive data therefore, ensure that third-party cybersecurity providers inform you where the information goes.
The Right Strategy Is Important
“Companies have to ask themselves why they want to create a fully automated manufacturing factory, and what value it creates for the end users. Once the staff in the company knows why this is being done, it will change the company’s culture, and they will start focusing on value delivered to the customers,” said Scott Maguire, global engineering director, Dyson. “At the end of the day, these are big investments, and companies have to plan strategies for the long-term and be willing to change their company culture.”
Manufacturing companies should embrace the positive disruptive changes that Industry 4.0 practices can bring. A digitalisation strategy which is tailored to your company’s needs should be mapped out, and disseminated to staff so they understand it is a part of the company’s new culture.
Augmented Reality holds vast potential and it is the future of manufacturing.
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