Miniaturisation plays an important role in many industries, including machining manufacture. Therefore, clamping chucks also have to become smaller, more precise and more powerful. The requirements cannot be met with conventional manufacturing – MAPAL therefore relies on additive manufacturing by selective laser melting. Article by MAPAL.
Whether in electrical engineering, medical technology, the aerospace industry, the watch industry or robotics and mechanical engineering – many products are becoming ever smaller, yet smarter, more user-friendly and more powerful. The topic of space is therefore crucial. Because space is not only limited on the wrist, in trouser pockets, on board an aircraft or in the human body, but also in the production halls of companies.
This requirement gives rise to the demand for productivity in the smallest possible space, which transfers the cycle of miniaturisation to the entire value-added level. Machine and tool technology in this small sector requires more and more functions having to be fulfilled in the smallest space, also in the area of clamping technology.
Perfect Radial Run-Out And Optimum Balancing Value
The radial run-out accuracy of the clamping chucks for a chipping thickness in the range of a few thousandths of a millimetre must be almost zero. This is the only way to achieve good surfaces at maximum spindle speeds with a long tool life. In addition, it must be ensured that any contamination due to microparticles is excluded. Another important topic for machining in the miniature sector is the supply of coolant lubricant. Too much medium means complex downstream part cleaning, too little or no cooling leads to a loss in quality and productivity.
If handling should also be simple, conventional manufacturing reaches its limits. The smaller the tool and clamping chuck, the easier handling must be. Because with each reduction, the handling of external peripheral devices becomes more complicated and more difficult. With shrink or collet technology, it also takes considerably longer for the tools to be ready for use. In the case of multi-part attachments, the individual deviations of the components also add up to a considerable error chain.
Additive Manufacturing By Selective Laser Melting
At MAPAL additive manufacturing by selective laser melting is used in all product areas. And this is the case in all situations where additively manufactured products can offer clear added value for the customer. Thanks to this innovative manufacturing process, MAPAL has succeeded in manufacturing clamping chucks in miniature format with HSK-E25 connection, for example for direct clamping of tools with a diameter of 3 mm. And these miniature clamping chucks meet all of the above requirements.
The Smallest Clamping Chucks With The Best Properties
In order to guarantee radial run-out accuracy, the clamping technology specialists have integrated innovative clamping chamber systems into the new clamping chucks, which fit snugly against the tool shank. They are equipped with dirt grooves to displace microscopic dirt. The required balancing value is ensured thanks to internal balancing geometries including support structures, which also optimise weight and strength. Overall, with the chucks in a small format, there can be achieved a more homogeneous and spindle-friendly acceleration and braking of the entire tool system consisting of clamping chuck and tool.
Thanks to additive manufacturing, MAPAL has succeeded in equipping the clamping chucks for the miniature sector with decentralised coolant outlets. Using parameters such as coolant pressure, setting dimension and spindle speed, these outlets are designed in such a way that they convey the coolant lubricant directly to the cutting point. In the best case, a dosed loss lubrication, which makes subsequent cleaning of the parts superfluous, is achieved.
Very Easy Handling Without Peripheral Devices
The new clamping chucks from MAPAL in a small format enable simple and quick clamping of the tool. Neither training courses nor high retooling costs or expensive peripheral devices are required for implementation. Because the hydraulic chucks are operated using a simple screw.
New Possibilities – Not Only For Tool Clamping
The new small hydraulic chucks also open up new possibilities for workpiece clamping. For example, for clamping hip joint balls. Here the external hydraulic clamping technology is used. Specially shaped chip flutes inside the chuck and a special external geometry ensure that the balls are clamped very precisely and gently at the same time. In medical technology in particular, topics such as reproducible precision are of enormous importance. And this is ensured during machining thanks to the new chucks.
Many versions of heat exchangers are used in different industries. After all, they help to make heat generated usable for other processes. In the case of recuperators, two liquid or gaseous media with different temperatures are pumped into separate circuits. A heat exchange takes place without mixing the media. Recuperators include bundle heat exchangers, which are usually made of metal and consist of a tube bundle that conducts a medium and an orifice baffle with a front tube plate through which a second medium flows. Depending on the size of the heat exchanger, the front tube plate has a large number of bores. To ensure that the medium does not escape at this component transition, high requirements are set at the bores with regard to position accuracy and dimensional accuracy.
Triple edge drill is the method of choice
The triple edge replaceable head drill TTD-Tritan from MAPAL has been tested in the petrochemical industry and is convincing right down the line when machining a tube plate. On the TTD-Tritan, tool head and tool holder are joined by Hirth serration. This connection is easy to operate and particularly stable, so that all the drill reaches the performance level of the solid carbide equivalent. In addition, it guarantees the best torque transmission with simultaneous high changing and radial run-out accuracy. The TTD-Tritan is optimally centred via its pronounced drill tip and ensures very good circularity. In addition, the cost-intensive carbide is limited to the tool head for the replaceable head system, which leads to low tool costs even with large diameters. The replaceable head system has a positive effect on stock, as the wear parts are mainly limited to the drill heads: As a result, the capital tied up in stock is also reduced.
In a specific case, the customer needs each diameter version in several lengths to machine the different versions of tube plates. The complete MAPAL range makes it possible to provide all desired versions. In addition, smaller diameters are served with the solid carbide design.
Machining time reduced by 57 percent
The customer’s tube plates made of carbon steel are drilled into the solid using the TTD-Tritan. The bore diameter is 25.6 mm and the bore length is 63.5 mm. Here the TTD-Tritan operates with a feed rate 59 percent higher than the double edge replaceable head drill from a competitor used to date. For the solid drilling operation described, the TTD-Tritan achieves a tool life of a good 53 metres while the drill previously used only achieved almost 28 metres. In addition to this significant increase of 90 percent, the MAPAL tool performs the solid drilling operation in one machining step and only takes 29 minutes for the complete tube plate with 550 bores. In contrast, piloting was necessary in the previous machining process. The tube plate also had to be manually cleaned to remove the partly very long chips after piloting. Overall, the TTD-Tritan reduces the machining time by 57 percent.
QTD indexable insert drill with new pyramid tip for stack machining
In addition to the two front tube plates, slightly thinner intermediate plates with the same bore pattern are also installed in shell & tube heat exchangers. These intermediate plates are stacked above one another for machining, spot welded together, drilled and then separated again. With the QTD indexable insert drill with innovative, patented pyramid tip, MAPAL has the optimum solution for even this application in its portfolio. The newly developed indexable insert with pyramid tip has a very small chisel edge and a tip angle of 120°. Furthermore, the indexable insert is self-centering and ensures a controlled bore entrance. The intermediate plates can thus be reliably drilled in a single machining step.
In 2018, we witnessed the rise of Southeast Asia’s manufacturing industry as the Trade War pressured manufacturers into shifting production from China to Southeast Asia. A trend that is expected to continue on in 2019 as Southeast Asia continues to develop its manufacturing capabilities and uncertainties over a US-China truce continue to loom. Through this market outlook series, eight industry leaders share their thoughts on how the regional market will grow and develop in 2019 amidst the changing economic background and the increased presence of disruptive and intelligent technologies.
Vice President, Asia-Pacific Area, MAPAL
2018 was a successful year for MAPAL and the company grew once again although growth in the Chinese market, which had previously been strong, flattened somewhat in the last quarter of 2018 due to factors such as punitive tariffs. For 2019, we have set a goal of generating a turnover of €650 million, and this will be achieved through free trade, the development of country specific expansions, the enhancement of digital capabilities and electric mobility machining capabilities.
Development Of Country Specific Expansions
For the companies under MAPAL Group in Southeast Asia, two new regional branches will be established in Indonesia where we are seeking to build a regional presence. While in the case of Malaysia, the country recently became our Southeast Asia production hub and has been equipped with a dedicated manufacturing facility. Additionally, we are actively investing in Malaysia and expansion is set to continue in Thailand too, where a new facility was established in 2017.
Enhancement Of Digital Capabilities
Digitalisation is a pressing issue globally, and in the face of increasing demands for efficient data management systems, we have identified this trend as a potential growth area. That was why we will be using 2019 to make further refinements to c-Com and to showcase the SaaS solution to interested parties as an open cloud platform for efficient data management.
MAPAL’s new tool management 4.0 is also based on c-Com. The interconnectivity that tool management 4.0 offers means that data can be provided consistently to all those involved – manufacturing, procurement, planning, tool managers and suppliers. That makes the overall process more efficient and digitalises tool management.
We also see great potential in our re-tooling service. Customers use this when they are setting up a new manufacturing facility for a part or re-tooling existing machinery to manufacture a new part, or when optimisations need to be made while production is running.
Electric Mobility Machining Capabilities
Alongside digitalisation, another significant trend at the moment is electric mobility and we have a diverse array of innovative machining solutions available for manufacturing the various parts within the different electric drives. The importance of the automotive industry is growing all the time, as is the number of vehicles being produced with electric drives.
Head of igus Asia Pacific, igus Singapore Pte Ltd
The Asia Pacific region will remain as the growth driver for us in 2019 but we may see regional differences in development. This is due to uncertainties related to tariffs and trade, Brexit discussions and regional tensions may cause some interruption on a global scale. However, in terms of long term sustainability, the opportunities in Asia far outweigh the challenges and we will continue to invest into new markets or expand existing manufacturing facilities.
Combining Digitalisation With Industrial Development
The world is changing faster than ever before, new trends are coming up and past solutions may disappear. Artificial intelligence, complete process automation, remote monitoring of machine performance, intelligent robotics and driverless vehicles are some of the trends in which we see a potential in. The clear objective for us moving forward is to concretely implement automated processes that range from online configuration to digitally supported manufacturing for all product categories. This is a difficult path to take because ready-made solutions usually cannot be bought but have to be developed individually.
Additionally, IoT continues to drive development. And igus as an early adopter, has developed the intelligent cable, energy chain and linear guide which are able to monitor their own condition during use and open up new possibilities of predictive maintenance.
Additive Manufacturing And Low Cost Robotics
Additive manufacturing would be another key trend to mention, with 3D or SLS printing being good examples of the technology. Also, low cost robotics are another trend to watch out for in 2019 and the igus robolink modular robotic system is an example of this.
Asia Pacific Regional Director, Hypertherm
2018 marked Hypertherm’s 50th year and we have grown from a manufacturer of plasma systems to a global provider of cutting solutions. Moving forward, our continued investment in research and development is part of our efforts to bring more breakthrough technologies to the market, such as the recently released X-definition class plasma system.
In 2019, Asia Pacific will continue to be a promising region for the industry due to rapid population and economic growth, industrialization and business-friendly measures introduced by governments. Besides the major markets in Oceania and Japan, the rapidly growing industrial manufacturing sector in India and Southeast Asia are also expected to contribute significantly to the region’s economic growth.
Change In Business Models In The Metal Cutting Industry
The metal cutting industry will shift from a demand driven model to a more competition driven model, where the key driver is automation and customers are increasingly looking to reduce reliance on labour. In fact, automation will continue to be the biggest development in the metal cutting industry as manufacturers in the region continue to balance technology with capacity and competitive demands.
Industry 4.0 Innovations
IIoT will continue to shape the manufacturing industry in 2019. Rising technologies such as machines, robots and other equipment on a production floor will be able to communicate with each other and gather data in the cloud for analysis. And with the data, a manufacturer will have greater insights which allows for predictive analysis to occur. This aligns to the shift in the industry from preventive maintenance to predictive maintenance.
In the future, fluctuating raw material prices will also impact the industry and transformations within the manufacturing sector will also be further propelled by the rapid evolution of technology. To achieve growth targets in the coming year, manufacturers will increasingly see the need to prioritize investments in technology that will enable them to improve their business agility.
Senior Vice President. EOS, Singapore
The additive manufacturing (AM) market is set to grow at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of around 27 percent between 2018 (USD 1.73 billion) and 2023 (USD 5.66 billion). In fact, AM in Asia Pacific is expected to have the highest CAGR due to the region having the fastest growth for the automotive and printed electronics sectors. This offers more opportunities for AM adoption in the manufacturing industry.
Decentralised, Distributed And Domestic Manufacturing Models
Rising protectionism and trade conflicts will increasingly push global supply chains towards decentralization and regionalization when it comes to manufacturing. And this, coupled with the digitalization of manufacturing and AM will serve as an enabler for distributed manufacturing. Businesses that adopt smart technologies like AM to 3D print parts and components will also be able to reduce production costs, processes, and time through part redesign and integration. This makes domestic manufacturing more practical than importing from abroad.
Continued Innovation And Adoption Of AM Across Industries
AM is reported to have a global economic impact of USD 250 billion by 2025 and the aerospace and defense industry is expected to continue leading AM adoption. Moreover, the global aerospace AM market is reportedly expected to register a CAGR close to 22.3 percent during the forecast period of 2018 to 2023.
In terms of the healthcare industry, AM adoption is expected to increase and with the aging population expected to rise, this trend is set to continue due to an expected increase in demand for personalized healthcare and treatments, as well as customized 3D-printed medical devices. For the automotive industry, AM’s ability to decrease production lead time, increase efficiency in logistics management, and ensure effective use of components/materials will result in its increased adoption. This trend is set to continue and the global automotive 3D printing market is predicted to be valued at over USD 8 billion by 2024. On the other hand, tooling and robotics are also expected to drive AM’s market share in APAC from 2018 to 2023.
President, Singapore Manufacturing Federation
The manufacturing industry in Asia is polarised into three categories – the “factories of the world”, the factories supplying to “factories of the world”, and the “middleman”, where most manufacturers in Asia are a part of. In Singapore, the industry is undergoing a two-part transformation – digitalisation and servitisation.
Due to Singapore’s relatively high labour cost compared to the region and talent shortage, the industry is also moving up the value chain and exploring the use of AI, IoT, robotics, automation and other digital tools to keep costs low and to increase productivity. Digitalisation itself is expected to quite significantly alter and remake the landscape of the industry.
Digitalisation Of Manufacturing And Supply Chains
To be digitalised is to implement these few technologies – additive manufacturing, AI, advanced manufacturing, blockchain, cloud computing, big data, e-commerce and future technologies (robotics, advanced automation, etc.).
Therefore, as manufacturing becomes increasingly digitalised, supply chain models must also become increasingly digitalised by implementing the above technologies. And this will lead to end-to-end integration. Furthermore, with this evolution of the supply chain model, shorter lead times, increased flexibility through real-time optimisation, increased efficiency and increased transparency and personalisation of services will be observed. A digitalised supply chain model is one in which processes are connected through a sensor network and managed through a central data hub and analytics engine.
Adopting The Right Technologies Amidst Economic Uncertainty
Due to the ongoing trade war, there is a fear that demand and investments will shrink. Protectionist attitude and interest rates are also on the rise. Thus, manufacturers can make use of technologies and innovate their business models to improve their productivity, efficiency and competency in order to overcome the adversities ahead. With the right technologies, the industry may even disrupt and affect other sectors, causing a ripple effect that could accelerate the advancement of businesses embracing Industry 4.0 sooner rather than later.
Automation Charter Chair, The Singapore Industrial Automation Association & Managing Director, Beckhoff
In 2019, at the mass market stage, enterprise digitisation will penetrate deeper into the manufacturing floor. This will cause enterprises to look towards obtaining data from as many machines and sensors as possible, which is a trend that has continued on from past years.
Overcoming The Barriers To Digitalisation
In order to digitalise more effectively, companies have more to gain from standardisation than competition. Currently, Germany is leading the effort to create common industry wide standards and they have done quite well as the VDMA is leading the machine standardisation for Germany. Countries in the ASEAN region may need to follow on their footsteps. Next, governments across the region should also help in funding digitisation initiatives and this is especially important for SMEs.
Finally, re-training and upskilling the workforce is needed. We are facing shortages in data engineers, data scientists, data analysts in the region and re-training and upskilling is especially important as older manufacturing jobs disappear and newer ones are created in their place.
The Importance Of Data Collection, ML And AR Technologies
On top of sending data over standardised communication protocol, companies will increasingly look towards getting standardised information from each machine type. This so called “information modelling” and is relevant to a production line today as there is hardly a “homogenous” production line containing the same machine model from the same manufacturer.
Another focus for the metalworking and CNC world will be the use of AR technologies. While still a cutting edge technology today, this technology holds a lot of promise from speeding up operators to training, to advancing maintenance work. At the bleeding edge, we are seeing an increasing trend of ML implementation directly on a premise or machine. While this is on early stages, we feel that this would be the internal focus of many bleeding edge suppliers moving forward.
Managing Director and Vice President, Southeast Asia, Siemens PLM Software
The outlook in Asia Pacific continues to be favourable in 2019. With a dynamic economy and an extremely fast-growing internet population, Southeast Asian markets are good options for companies looking to diversify and add to their operations in China. Especially as rising labour costs and increasingly volatile market conditions in China cause more firms to relocate their production in order to spread out risk and gain access to new markets.
The Growth Of Mass Customisation Focused Technologies
The shift towards a knowledge-intensive economy in Southeast Asia is a by-product of the global movement towards a more individualized and personalized consumption economy. Therefore, the region is expected to transit from the age of mass-production, to one of mass-customisation which is a trend that has been highlighted at the ASEAN Summit. Due to this, we are expecting manufacturers to adopt and implement technologies such as cloud-based product lifecycle management solutions, as well as Digital Twin technologies, in order to be able to produce meet the level of rigour and scale that is required for mass-customisation.
The Development Of Disruptive And New Technologies
Disruptive technologies such as robotics, computer numerical control (CNC) machines, additive manufacturing, artificial intelligence, scanning technology and smart devices will persist and will be ubiquitous across the product value chain. In the case of additive manufacturing, markets such as Singapore, China and South Korea have already identified it as a growth potential and are actively investing in the technology to create high-end jobs and services.
Additionally, Dyson has also announced plans for its first electric car, to be built in a new automotive manufacturing facility in Singapore that is set for completion in 2020. The selection of Singapore as a site for this facility – which has not seen automotive manufacturing since Ford closed its factory 40 years ago – is a surprise for many. This investment which is part of Dyson’s USD 3.3 billion global investment drive in new technology, is a game changer for the electronics and heavy machinery industries in the region.
Regional Executive Director, UBM
In 2019, the ASEAN region will remain as an attractive area for investment. The ongoing trade war between China and the USA is creating problems and opportunities within the ASEAN region as although foreign investment companies are starting to relocate their manufacturing plants away from China, countries within ASEAN particularly Vietnam and Indonesia, are benefiting from the relocation of manufacturing plants into their countries.
The Rise Of Indonesia And Vietnam
Most of UBM’s trade shows have continued to grow, particularly in Vietnam where there are numerous opportunities in both HCM and Hanoi. Currently, the biggest problem for the organisation of events in Vietnam is the size of the venues in both HCM and Hanoi which restricts UBM’s expansion plans. However, this also reinforces Vietnam’s position as UBM’s strongest market since 2018.
In Indonesia, the economic growth in the short term will be modest due to the Rupiah depreciation as we all as the impact of the upcoming presidential elections in April. This will affect overseas investment as investors take a “wait and see” approach. Thus, investments will be halted for at least the first half of the year. For this reason, Indonesia is expected to rely on domestic consumption and household spending to drive the economy. However in the long term, Indonesia remains a strategic and lucrative market for investors as it continues to offer strong economic fundamentals to spur the growth of the middle class and fuel consumer spending which is a key driver of growth.
Growth Of Smart Factories And Smart Manufacturing In Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia’s main selling point can no longer be its low wages if it is to remain competitive. Implementation of new technologies are needed to help close the productivity gap. This means factories will need to integrate technologies such as robotics to maximise productivity, minimise human failure and prevent work-related accidents. Aside from that, companies could integrate AI and data analytics to make automation processes more intelligent and to improve efficiency.
A report by McKinsey & Company has highlighted that Southeast Asia needs to embrace Industry 4.0 to unlock its potential in manufacturing. Through this report, it is stated that disruptive technologies associated with Industry 4.0 would have an impact on productivity on a scale that is similar to the introduction of the steam engine had during the first Industrial Revolution. Globally, if the digital technologies of Industry 4.0 were to be embraced and integrated efficiently, it is forecasted that it could contribute between USD 1.2 trillion and USD 3.7 trillion in business profits. Meanwhile in ASEAN, the impact of Industry 4.0 could see productivity gains of between USD 216 billion to USD 627 billion.
2018 was one of the most successful years for Bystronic due to numerous product launches in the gold, silver and bronze segments of the market as well as international business expansions.
In 2019, the economy is uncertain because of market turmoil and currency slumps but sheet metal continues to have a wide application in industries that are set for growth such as the automotive, semiconductor and electronic industries. Additionally, governments across Asia are continuously building and developing infrastructure and new industrial areas which create indirect opportunities for the sheet metal fabrication market.
The Growth Of Automation
The industry is currently in the age of automation. This is because automation allows for shorter lead times, greater accuracy, higher quality and competitive pricing. In the field of laser cutting, automation makes it possible to process not only large series but also small batch sizes, while maintaining the flexibility that users require to always respond to changing order situations.
Implementation Of Networked Production
With automation drastically changing the outlook of the sheet metal industry, Bystronic is systematically driving forward the vision of “World Class Manufacturing”. This is based on a comprehensive range of new products and services with which Bystronic is gearing its users’ process landscape towards networked production. It features innovative solutions that go far beyond the conventional idea of a machine tool. It’s about fusing the individual processes relating to laser cutting and bending into a network of intelligent components.
MAPAL offers various UNIBASE dispensing systems for optimum storage and management of tools, components and accessories, which can be individually networked with one another according to a modular principle. These systems are often situated in a central location in the manufacturing system. Therefore, in order to store and manage frequently required consumables in a decentralised and space-saving manner, MAPAL has developed the new, cost-effective UNIBASE-S single automatic dispenser. This can be connected to existing UNIBASE systems or used as an individual solution.
Thanks to its compact dimensions, the UNIBASE-S stock dispensing system can be installed directly on the workbench. For example, the 96 or 192 compartments are ideal for storing indexable inserts, tools, chucks or personal protective equipment. This saves the employee a trip to the central warehouse and ensures production-related article procurement. In addition, logistics costs are reduced.
Article removal is quick and uncomplicated in just a few steps. To do this, the employee logs on directly to the device via the integrated touchscreen. Only registered employees can remove articles. If no employee is logged on, central locking is active. After the desired article has been selected via the pre-installed software, the search function of the software supports this and an LED illumination identifies the compartment with the corresponding article. The dispensing drum is rotated manually so that it is at the removal position and the article can be removed. The system automatically registers the withdrawal – in this way, the current status is always used.
MAPAL’s radical ISO indexable inserts have been developed with the idea of withstanding specialised applications including huge stock removals, unstable conditions or as disc milling cutters. Positive and negative indexable inserts have also been built from four different PVD cutting materials and possess novel carbide substrates and coatings. Making them highly adapted for incorporation into milling cutters. The inserts also possess an increased tool life and allow for smooth running of machinery with minimal noise pollution. This can be attributed to ability of the inserts to be adjusted accurately to the requirements mandated by the materials and applications involved. For example, the most economical version of the insert contains eight and 16 cutting edges that can be utilised for face milling and between two, four and eight cutting edges for shoulder milling.
Mapal’s hydraulic chuck incorporates a High Torque Chuck (HTC) technology with lean contour with the 3 deg back taper known from the shrink chuck.
The HTC technology is also suitable for all machining in contour-critical areas. It allows quick and simple clamping of the tool. The clamping range is very close to the chuck tip, ensuring optimum radial run-out (< 3 µm at the location bore, < 5 µm at 2.5 x diameter) and high shape accuracy with good vibration damping.
The damping in the system reduces microstructure cracking at the cutting edge. That in turn ensures long tool lives of the tool and less strain on the machine spindle. The balancing quality is G=2.5 at 25,000 revolutions per minute.
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